In addition, children are at higher risk than adults for developing symptomatic hyponatremia because they have a higher brain-to-intracranial volume ratio.
What causes low sodium levels in babies?
The most frequent cause of neonatal hyponatremia is hypovolemic dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or both. When fluid loses are replaced with fluids that have little or no sodium (eg, some juices), hyponatremia can result.
What causes high sodium levels in infants?
Etiology. Water loss in excess of sodium intake is most commonly caused by diarrhea, vomiting, or high fever. It may also be caused by poor feeding in the early days of life (eg, when mother and infant are both learning to breastfeed) and may occur in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants born at 24 to 28 weeks.
How do pediatrics correct hyponatremia?
In patients with normovolemic hyponatremia, restriction of fluids to two-thirds (or less) of the volume needed for maintenance is the mainstay of treatment. Diuretics can be administered with fluid restriction to remove excessive free water. Once again, the change in Na levels should not exceed 8 mEq/L/d.
What is the most common cause of hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia is decrease in serum sodium concentration < 136 mEq/L (< 136 mmol/L) caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, liver disease, renal disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
How fast can you correct sodium?
In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia, the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours. A bolus of 100 to 150 mL of hypertonic 3% saline can be given to correct severe hyponatremia.
What is the normal sodium level for a child?
The normal range for blood sodium levels is 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What happens when your sodium level is too high?
Hypernatremia involves dehydration, which can have many causes, including not drinking enough fluids, diarrhea, kidney dysfunction, and diuretics. Mainly, people are thirsty, and if hypernatremia worsens, they may become confused or have muscle twitches and seizures.
What are the symptoms of high sodium levels in the blood?
Symptoms of high sodium levels in the blood can include:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Loss of consciousness/coma.
Can dehydration cause hyponatremia?
Common Causes of Hyponatremia
Hyponatremia occurs when your body’s sodium levels are too low — less than 135 mEq/L. This narrow window of adequate sodium concentration explains why it’s so easy to suffer from dehydration and other electrolyte disorders.
How do you evaluate hyponatremia?
- Step 1: Plasma osmolarity.
- Step 2: Assess volume status with physical exam, urine sodium (UNa)
- Step 3: Urine osmolarity.
- Severe symptomatic hyponatremia.
- Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic hyponatremia.
What is severe hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia is a low sodium concentration in the blood. It is generally defined as a sodium concentration of less than 135 mmol/L (135 mEq/L), with severe hyponatremia being below 120 mEq/L. Symptoms can be absent, mild or severe. Mild symptoms include a decreased ability to think, headaches, nausea, and poor balance.
Will eating more salt help hyponatremia?
In elderly patients with a diet poor in protein and sodium, hyponatremia may be worsened by their low solute intake. The kidney’s need to excrete solutes aids in water excretion. An increase in dietary protein and salt can help improve water excretion.
Which organ is most affected by hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia is more likely in people living with certain diseases, like kidney failure, congestive heart failure, and diseases affecting the lungs, liver or brain. It often occurs with pain after surgery. Also, people taking medications like diuretics and some antidepressants are more at risk for this condition.
Can drinking too much water cause hyponatremia?
Drinking excessive amounts of water can cause low sodium by overwhelming the kidneys’ ability to excrete water. Because you lose sodium through sweat, drinking too much water during endurance activities, such as marathons and triathlons, can also dilute the sodium content of your blood.